Kaizen  principles has have highlighted seven  wastes in production line where comapnies looses
out  time , money  and  productivity .Manufacturers  have to eliminate these deadly wastes  with
modification ,low cost automation and  asking question  whether customer would pay for the
activity involved at shop floors .

Here  are the  seven waste in any   manufacturing unit

  • Over-production
  • Waiting
  • Transporting
  • Inappropriate Processing
  • Unnecessary Inventory
  • Unnecessary/Excess Motion
  • Defects


Normaly most of the manufacturers adopt these principles which works in push system rather
than  pull system  where production is plan in batch  and items are produced  in excess to be
kept as inventory .Reasons for Over production could be  non- availability of machines , wrong
sales forecast
stock out of certain raw material ,  high change over time .Over production results in waste of
money  which could have been used for  other useful activity. Stocks gets deterioted if kept  for
longer time .
Few Examples are

Producing more than the customer needs right now
Producing product to stock based on sales forecasts
Producing more to avoid set-ups
Batch process resulting in extra output
Long set-ups

Solution could be Pull system scheduling,Heijunka – level loading,Set-up reduction


Now this could be a finished  product  waiting for dispatch , items waiting  for the  next phase on
the production line  or raw material procured in advance for any reason .Thus blocking
companies money .Few Examples for waiting are . Called
Muda  in Kaizen Concepts

Idle time created when material, information, people, or equipment is not ready

Waiting for parts
Waiting for prints
Waiting for inspection
Waiting for machines
Waiting for information
Waiting for machine repair

Solution could be Takt time production,In-process gauging,Jidoka,Office Kaizen,TPM


This  is due to  wrong layout of the production flow  as objetcs  are kept at distance  which has to
be moved to production shop floor resulting in waste ( time , labour and cost ) . Care should be
taken such that the time spent on  transporting   items to or from  warehouse  is minimum.Better
examples are work stations in  any automobile company where   every thing is delivered  at work
station.Low automation on loading , unloading and transporting can save good amount of money

Few Examples

Movement of product that does not add value
Moving parts in and out of storage

Moving material from one workstation to another
Batch production

Solution could be Pull system,Value Stream organizations


In appropriate processing comes into picture when manufacturers  goes for  advance hitech
machinery  for normal job which could have done by conventional machine. These highly
automated machines  if not handled carefully  tends  to over produce .This also includes  items
sourced  from a wrong supplier .

Few Examples
One-piece pull

Office Kaizen


Lean Design

Solution One-piece pull,Office Kaizen,3P,Lean Design


This happens due to  faulty production planning,long lead times  also contributes on inventory,
long set up time .,Overproduction  of finished good ,WIP .This also happens due lack of proper
ordering procedure based on EOQ .

Solution Supplier development,One-piece flow lines,Set-up reduction,Internal kanban and
External kanban


Normaly  it is about ergonomics  the worker s posture which results in unecessary  motion or few
jobs which are done repetitively without adding any value  to the job.

Few   examples

Searching for parts, tools, prints, etc.
Sorting through materials
Reaching for tools
Lifting boxes of parts
Workplace disorganization
Missing items
Poor workstation design
Unsafe work area

Solution could be Point of Use Storage,Water Spider,One-piece flow,Workstation design


Defects  are shear waste and has to minimised  to zero as these are cost to company defective
products cosumes raw material fuel labour .Cost is incurred on rework on these defectives .

Few Examples

Missing parts
Process failure
Mis-loaded part
Batch process
Inspect-in quality
Incapable machines

Solution GembaSigma,Pokayoke,One-piece pull,Built-in quality,3P,Jidoka

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