INCO  TERMS

Incoterms or international commerce terms are a series of international sales terms
that are widely used throughout the world. They are used to divide transaction
costs and responsibilities between buyer and seller and reflect state of the art
transportation practices. They closely correspond to the U.N. Convention on
Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

Incoterms deal with the questions related to the delivery of the products from the
seller to the buyer. This includes the carriage of products, export and import
clearance responsibilities, who pays for what, and who has risk for the condition of
the products at different locations within the transport process. Incoterms are
always used with a geographical location and do not deal with transfer of title.

They are devised and published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).
The English text is the original and official version of Incoterms 2000, which have
been endorsed by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law
(UNCITRAL). Authorized translations into 31 languages are available from ICC
national committees.

Group E - Departure:
  • EXW. Ex Works (named place): the seller makes the goods available at his
    premises.
Group F - Main Carriage Unpaid:
  • FCA. Free Carrier (named place): the seller hands over the goods, cleared
    for export, into the custody of the first carrier (named by the buyer) at the
    named place. This term is suitable for all modes of transport, including
    carriage by air, rail, road, and containerised / multi-modal transport.
  • FAS. Free Alongside Ship (named loading port): free Alongside Ship: the
    seller must place the goods alongside the ship at the named port. The buyer
    must clear the goods for export. Suitable for maritime transport only.
  • FOB. Free On Board (named loading port): the classic maritime trade term,
    Free On Board: seller must load the goods on board the ship nominated by
    the buyer, cost and risk being divided at ship's rail. The seller must clear the
    goods for export. Maritime transport only.
Group C - Main Carriage Paid:
  • CFR. Cost and Freight (named destination port): seller must pay the costs
    and freight to bring the goods to the port of destination. However, risk is
    transferred to the buyer once the goods have crossed the ship's rail.
    Maritime transport only.
  • CIF. Cost, Insurance and Freight (named destination port): exactly the same
    as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for insurance
    for the buyer. Maritime transport only.
  • CPT. Carriage Paid To (named destination port): the
    general/containerised/multimodal equivalent of CFR. The seller pays for
    carriage to the named point of destination, but risk passes when the goods
    are handed over to the first carrier.
  • CIP. Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named destination port): the
    containerised transport/multimodal equivalent of CIF. Seller pays for carriage
    and insurance to the named destination point, but risk passes when the
    goods are handed over to the first carrier.
Group D - Arrival:
  • DAF. Delivered At Frontier (named place)
  • DES. Delivered Ex Ship (named port)
  • DEQ. Delivered Ex Quay (named port)
  • DDU. Delivered Duty Unpaid (named destination place)
  • DDP. Delivered Duty Paid (named destination place)












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