Cost of inventory consist two element a . Physical quantity b. Unit cost hence product of these two give us total inventory cost . Other costs that are to be added to get actual inventory cost are buying , freight ,storing and receiving cost .
Methods of Inventory Costing
There are several methods to determine the cost of inventories .The selection of a suitable method assumes significance in view of the fact that it has direct bearing on the cost of good sold and profit calculation .
Various method to calculate inventory cost are
FIFO - First In First Out Method
The FIFO method
The FIFO method is based on assumption that material received first is consumed in chronological order , those received first are issued first and value fixed accordingly .
Average Cost Method
Average cost method takes average cost of material purchased which is added into inventory till the new lots is purchased .
LIFO - Last In First Out Method
The cost of inventory are finalised only at year end along with cost of good sold . The use of inventory is valued in the inverse sequence of receipts
Actual Cost method
Most of the companies follows these method to calculate the inventory .In this method material are issued are priced at their actual price .
Base stock price method
The base stock refers to minimum quantity of stock material that a firm has to maintain at all time . Used in Industries having long processing period such as crude oil , hides etc
Standard price method
Standard price are fixed for each material and material are issued on these prices . Normally practiced in companies where bulk buying is done in advance and hence the standard price can help them in benchmarking with actual price . The difference or the variance of price between actual and standard price shows the savings or excess by the planned budget.
Market price method The current market of material issued are gathered to get cost of inventory