Rancidity in fats and oil

Fat and Oils are major ingredients for any baked goods . These oils and fats  are bought in
bulk by these bakery  manufacturers . Chances of fat or oil being rancid becomes high if
stored for a longer period .This rancid fat or oil can then effect the quality of baked items .  
Fat and oil can be checked for rancidity prior to production by instrument called rancimant .

What Is Rancidity?

Rancidity is a very general term and in its most general meaning, it refers to the spoilage of a
food in such a way that it becomes undesirable (and usually unsafe) for consumption. When
people say that a food has "gone bad," what they're usually talking about is rancidity. Most of
the time, but not always, rancidity can change the odors or flavors of a food in such a way
that it becomes very unpleasant to smell or taste.

While most any food can technically become rancid, this term applies particularly to oils. Oils
can be especially susceptible to rancidity because their chemistry can make them
exceptionally susceptible to oxygen damage. When food scientists talk about rancidity, they
are often talking about a specific type of rancidity involving oxygen damage to foods, and this
type of rancidity is called "oxidative rancidity." During the process of oxidative rancidity,
oxygen molecules interact with the structure of the oil and damage its natural structure in a
way that can change its odor, its taste, and its safety for consumption. Chemical reaction  
produces  butryic acid which gives the foul smell and taste .

Rancidity is caused by hydrolysis and oxidation. Heat, moisture and exposure to light will
increase these chemical reactions and thus increase the likelihood of the onset of rancidity.
Anti –oxidant added in during  dough  preparation prevents or delays oxidation hence the
rancidity of oil or fat .

How to measure the level of Rancidity?

Apparatus called Rancimat  is used to calculate  effect of  antioxidant  on oil and fat . Other
methods like used for determination of rancidity are Peroxide value ( Primary Oxidation)and
Anisidine value( Secondary Oxidation)   in fat or oil .Peroxide value provides the extent of
rancidity present in the oil.Peroxide value is found by formation of iodine when oil or fat are
reacts with iodine ion.  Totox  value are also used to check the quality of oil and fat .

Totox  Value = Anisidine value + 2x Peroxide value

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