Like crude oil, it is a naturally occurring resource formed millions of years ago as a result of heat and
pressure acting on decayed organic material. It is extracted from wells sunk into the earth. The main
ingredient in natural gas is methane (94%).
Natural gas is odorless, colorless and tasteless in its natural state. It is nontoxic, but if released within an
enclosed area it can displace oxygen and act as a simple asphyxiant. When mixed with the proper
amount of air, it is flammable/explosive.
At ambient temperatures it remains in gaseous form; however, it can be compressed (CNG) under high
pressure to make it convenient for use in other applications or liquefied (LNG) under extremely cold
temperatures (-260°F) to facilitate efficient transportation of the gas.
Natural  Gas  is  currently  transported  either  in  pipe line  network  ( at  moderate  pressure )  with  
compressor  stations  at  regular  intervals  along  the  pipe  line   network  to compress  and  push  the  
natural  gas  further  when  the  pressure  drops  due  to  long  distance  or  after  liquefication  by  LNG  
carrier  in  liquid  state.
Compressed  Natural  Gas ( CNG ) :
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. It is considered to be
an environmentally "clean" alternative to those fuels. It is made by compressing purified natural gas, and
is typically stored and distributed in hard containers.

CNG is produced by compressing natural gas at 3,000 psi pressure (conventional cooking gas is
supplied at 25 psi pressure at the burner). Natural gas is usually transmitted by pipelines to refuelling
stations ( at  25 – 30 psi )  and compressed at a pressure of 3,000 psi with the help of specially installed
compressors to enable it to be loaded as gas cylinders for vehicles. Vehicles that are equipped with
appropriate fuel conversion kits and tanks (gas cylinder) can comfortably run on CNG.


When chilled to very cold temperatures (-260°F) natural gas changes into a liquid. In this form, liquefied
natural gas (LNG) takes up only 1/600th of the space that natural gas would in its gaseous state and
thus can be stored and transported more efficiently.

LNG can be loaded onto specially built tankers (large ships with several domed and thermally insulated
tanks) and moved across the oceans to deliver gas to other countries.  When LNG is received, it is
warmed and changed back to its gaseous state. It can then be injected into natural gas transmission
pipelines for further transportation. LNG can also be shipped by truck or stored until it is needed for
regasification and use.   

LNG can be very useful, particularly for the transportation of natural gas, since LNG takes up about one
six hundredth the volume of gaseous natural gas. While LNG is reasonably costly to produce, advances
in technology are reducing the costs associated with the liquification and regasification of LNG. Because
it is easy to transport, LNG can serve to make economical to  those stranded natural gas deposits for
which the construction of pipelines is uneconomical.

1. Production                   Natural gas is produced
2. LNG Liquefication        Termina Gas is liquefied
3. Transportation             Tanker transports LNG
4. LNG Terminal               LNG is stored and vaporized
5. Distribution                   Natural gas is transported via pipelines to markets
6. Consumption               Consumers use natural gas for cooking and heating purposes


LPG  is  a  byproduct  of  petroleum  refining  or  natural  gas  processing. LPG is the generic name for
commercial propane and commercial butane. Commercial Propane predominantly consists of
hydrocarbons containing three carbon atoms, mainly propane (C3H8). Commercial Butane
predominantly consists of hydrocarbons containing four carbon atoms, mainly n- and iso - butanes
(C4H10). LPG  what  we  get  is  ( 30 % Propane  and  70 %  Butane )

They have the special property of becoming liquid at atmospheric temperature if moderately
compressed, and reverting to gases when the pressure is sufficiently reduced. Advantage is taken of
this property to transport and store these products in the liquid state, in which they are roughly 250
times as dense as they are when gases.

Main  parameter  is  the  Energy  content  per  Gallon :
Energy  content   of  CNG  is   one – third  of  LPG ,  which  means  that  the  consumption  of  CNG  will  
be  three  times  more  than  the  consumption  of  LPG  for  the  same  heating  required.  


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