Normal  moisture  % which is allowed for flour  is 12- 14 % for bakery industry .Anything  above  is not
suitable for bakery
purpose .


It is rubber  like protein  which provides  the  
network like structure .It  is basically  protein

Protein  can be classified into  two categories

a  Gliadin

b. Glutenin

Gluten is responsible  for unique quality of  elasticity/
extensibility and resistance . Gluten  percentage in any
bakery flour should be  between 10- 11%.


Extensibility is the  property by which we can define  the stretching  power of flour without  breaking .

Resistance  is the property  by it opposes any deformation  or stretching .

These properties can  be plotted on graph by means of extensor meeter .


Every flour  has certain  water absorption  power so as to  make  good dough .Generally 60% of flour
quantity   amounts  to the quantity of water .


Its checked by using  sieves .If the  barn left out  on the sieve( 32 mesh )  is more than  0.5% then flour
is rejected .


It shows the  activity  of  alpha - amylase  enzyme .Higher  number  shows  low activity  ie less break
down  of starch  and lower number  shows  high activity ie  more break down  of starch.


Adsorption is a process that occurs when a gas or liquid solute accumulates on the surface of a solid or
a liquid (adsorbent), forming a molecular or atomic film (the adsorbate). It is different from absorption, in
which a substance diffuses into a liquid or solid to form a solution. The term sorption encompasses both
processes, while desorption is the reverse process.

Dough is formed when water is added and mixed  with wheat flour .Pouring water on flour  causes a
dough film to form  at the inter face  of water and the flour . The dough film acts as barrier  through which
further  water cannot pass until  agigation breaks down  this film and allows new surface to contacts to
be available .Continued mixing  willl allow  the water  to surround each flour particles and also penetrate
 into the interior  and adsorbed on the starch granules .The large percentage of starch
in a dough adsorbs  probably  45- 55% of  the water used

more  flour  properties

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