In continuation of my earlier article  on bakery plant maintenance  here  are few more elements for efficient
maintenance system in medium to large bakeries .

Root Cause Analysis  (  RCA )methods

The best method  to eliminate  frequent break downs  in plant and machinery is to adopt Root Cause Analysis
method .In this method one confronts issues which causes these break down ,better known as why's  method  
and finds solution to stop recurrence of  the  fault .

Few general principles of RCA method are

Root cause analysis is  done to find out the root cause of the problem and remove it to eliminate the problem
once for all

There should be a systematic approach with documentary support for the fault  and corrective measures

There is always one single root cause for the failures or break down in machinery

For any event or failure to happen there would be sequence of events which  needs to be recorded for better
understanding of root cause

from reactive  to proactive approach by adopting root cause analysis for break downs and failures .

OEE ( Overall Equipment Efficiency)

Maintenance deptt need to establish OEE of major equipments  and try  to improve upon it or discard it  
performs below standard OEE defined by plant management

OEE is a term used for machinery which perform any function during production and it shows manufacturing
efficiency of that particular machine

OEE =  Availability  X Performance X Quality   ( %)

Another term used for performance of  equipment is  total effective equipment efficiency  ( TEEP )

TEEP  = Loading x Availability x Quality x Performance (%)

Loading = Schedule time / Calender Time  (%)

Availability = Available time / Schedule Time (%)

Performance =Parts produced * ideal cycle time /  Available time (%)

Quality  = Good Unit produced/ Total unit produced

Change Over Plans

Its often seen that  bakery plants production  switches from one product to other product as per the sales
requirement  which requires swift change over of machines or switching on to different line . These change
overs   does  effect  machine efficiency  as change over parts have to be installed trials needs to be conducted
for the new product before handing over machine for production . Change overs  cannot be ruled out  as
production has to be sales driven  so what best maintenance team  can do is to reduce the time and process
seamless for  any change overs .

Following  steps  can be implemented for change overs

* Be aware of production plan  .Do the preparatory work for  change over during regular time
* If possible switch over to dedicated lines for each product   or having idle plant best suits for quick change
over . This line can be altered for change over .
* Keep change parts ready  at  the equipment itself with tags and marks for location and product s
* Train production people to  do the basic  change overs activity

Work shop

A small workshop could help in reducing cost and time for break downs .Workshop with units like drilling ,
grinding , Cutting machines can help in many ways. Overhauling and repairs can be done in these workshops
Its recommended to have one or two workshop on contract for regular major repair work near to factory .

Service Contracts

Plant or maintenance deptt can outsource certain non critical plant and machinery maintenance to
maintenance contractors or OEMS for a annual or monthly charges . This would reduce the cost of inventory
and overheads .Not all equipments  are critical for production such equipments can be given to maintenance
contractors on call basis .

Following equipments can be given to  service contractors

DG Set

Air compressors


Cooling towers

Fire Hydrant and safety systems

Air conditioning ( Office )

Air conditioning ( Production /Packaging Hall )

Cold Rooms or Storage's

Fork lift

Waste Water treatment plant

Civil and building repair

Electrical repair ( Non -Plant )

Other option with maintenance deptt is to have  service contracts for  critical equipments  with OEM  such as


Metal detectors

Packing machines

Hot work Precautions and Safety

Safety precautions are to be taken during hot work  such as Gas cutting , Welding ,  Erection of heavy  
equipments  and Dismantling , Electrical Jobs . These activities not only affect the person doing it but the plant
at large ,hence maintenance personnel to keep extra vigil during such jobs . Maintenance personnel need to
wear all protective guards against injury   such  as welding screens , goggles , gloves , ear plugs , safety belts  
and  electric and fire proof shoes

Automated Maintenance

This concept is gradually gaining ground  as this has been successfully implemented in automobile production
line . Here the person running the machine is trained in maintenance and repair  so as to eliminate the need of
extra manpower for maintenance . If possible bakeries could adopt this practice for over head cost reduction
strategies as well reducing delays in maintenance time.

Legal requirements for operations

Maintenance deptt needs to ensure that equipments and operation  adhere to local  legal and statutory
requirements  such  as

Air pollution control ( Standards for discharge of smoke )

Water Pollution  (  Standards for waste water discharge )

Boiler Safety

Pressure vessels and lifting devices safety

Hazardous waste

Fire safety - Fire hydrant system

TPM  (Total Productive Maintenance )

For bigger bakeries plant needs to implement total productive maintenance system for better results as  
operations are on large sales having more than 10- 15 lines at  one locations  would require a fool proof
system for maintenance . This could be done through TPM .Methodical and systematic approach to increase
production  efficiencies with less break down and maintenance.The aim of productive maintenance is  to
maximize plant and equipment effectiveness to achieve the optimum life cycle cost of production equipment.

Back  - Bakery Plant maintenance system

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